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三种禅修障碍及其对治方法(向智尊者)

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发表于 2008-2-28 13:45:39 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
文献来源  Ven Nyanaponika 向智尊者“The Power of Mindfulness”

Obstacles to Meditation

The antagonistic forces that appear in meditation and there are liable to upset its smooth course are of three kinds. If we are mentally prepared by a realistic view of these three factors antagonistic to meditation, we shall be less inclined to react at once by irritation when they actually arise.
如果我们以实事求是的态度看待干扰禅修的三种因素,心作好准备,那当它们实际生起时就比较不会立即以激怒作为响应,而是以现在要说明的和平武器,在情绪比较平稳的情况下面对。在禅修过程中,可能出现敌对的扰乱力量有三种:

1.     external disturbances, such as noise
一、外在的干扰,如噪音。
@_@ Realistic meditation has the purpose of training the mind to face, to understand and to conquer this very world in which we live. And this world inevitably includes numerous obstacles to the life of meditation
正确的禅修不是逃避现实,也不是提供藏匿处以暂时遗忘。实事求是的禅修其真正目标是训练心去面对、了解与征服我们居住的世界,这世界不可避免存在许多禅修生活的障碍。



2.     mental defilements, such as lust, anger, restlessness, dissatisfaction, or sloth, which may arise at any time during meditation;
二、内心的烦恼,如贪、瞋、掉举、不满或昏沉,在禅修中随时可能出现。
@_@ The venerable Mahasi Sayadaw said:” in an unliberated worldling mental defilements are sure to arise again and again. He has to face that fact and know these defilements well in order to apply again and again the appropriate remedy of satipatthana. Then they will grow weaker, more short-lived, and will finally disapper.
缅甸的禅修大师马哈希尊者曾说:在未解脱的凡夫身上,烦恼必定一再生起。他必须面对事实,清楚认识这些烦恼,以便不断运用合适的四念处对治法。烦恼会因而渐渐减弱且变得短暂,进而消失殆尽。


3.     various incidental stray thoughts, or surrender to day-dreaming.
三、各种难免生起的妄念或放任自己作白日梦。
These distractions are the great stumbling blocks for a beginner in meditation who has not yet acquired sufficient dexterity to deal with them effectively. By understanding our adversaries better, we have consolidated our position which was formerly weakened by an emotional approach; and by transforming these adversaries into teachers of the truths, we have won the first advantage over them.
对刚开始学习禅修的人而言,这些使人分心的事物是极大的绊脚石,因为他们尚未获得足够且有效的技巧来处理它们。将禅修干扰转变成禅修所缘的方法既简单又巧妙,可视为非暴力过程的极致。这方法极具「念住」精神的特色—将一切经验作为解脱道资粮。如此可化敌为友,因为所有干扰与敌对力量都变成我们的老师,只要是老师,都应当视为朋友。



Three Countermeasures(对治方法)

1.     one should notice the disturbance clearly, but lightly: that is, without emphasis and without attention to details. After that brief act of noticing, one should try to return to the original subject of meditation.
首先应清楚注意干扰,但要轻轻地,也就是不要重视它或注意其细节。这样短暂的注意后,应试着回到原来禅修的业处。

2.     if ,however, the disturbance persists, one should repeat the application of bare attention again and again, patiently and calmly; and it may be that the disturbance will vanish when it has spent its force. Here the attitude is to meet the repeated occurrence of a disturbance by a reiterated “no , a determined refusal to be deflected from one’s course.
然而如果干扰一直持续则应耐心镇定、一而再地运用「全然专注」,干扰的力量在耗尽后就会消失。此处态度是反复说「不」,以离开原来行动的决定性「拒绝」面对一再出现的干扰,这就是有耐心又坚定的态度。

3. but if ,for some reason, they do not yield, one should deliberately turn one’s full attention to the disturbance and make it an object of knowledge.
但这些干扰若因某种理由并未投降,我们应审慎地全神专注于干扰,使它们成为智能生起的所缘。



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发表于 2008-2-28 14:39:38 | 显示全部楼层

持续专注对潜意识与记忆的影响,会深化与强化直觉力,特别是此处主要关切的「直觉的领悟」。直觉并非没来由而得到的天赋,它如同其它心理机能,都是由特定的条件所产生。如目前所述,其最主要的条件就是知觉与思想储存于潜意识中的潜在记忆。

显然,为直觉的成长提供最肥沃土壤的是那些拥有较大强度、清晰度与数量庞大等明确特征的记忆,因为最容易触及。在此所保留下来与「触」相关的事物也贡献良多。这类记忆比单一事件空洞或模糊回忆更具组织特色,且更易形成新意义与意涵,这些较为清楚的记忆意象,将成为直觉力的强烈刺激与助力。在潜意识深处,经验与知识存于潜意识中的资料悄悄聚集并组织,直到时机成熟才显现为直觉。有时相当普通的事件就能触动直觉爆发,虽然这些事件看来十分平常,但只要它们先前一直受到持续注意,这些事件对直觉就拥有强大的召唤力。放缓与暂停下来运用「全然专注」,会显露出日常生活中简单事物的深度,因而给予直觉力潜在的刺激。

这也可以运用在导致究竟解脱的「四圣谛」现观上。经典记载许多僧尼实际修观时未能达到现观的例子,但直觉的闪光却在截然不同的场合触发他们,例如被石头绊倒或偶然看到森林之火、河中幻影或一团泡沫。在此,我们又看到另一个肯定这似乎矛盾说法的例子:「有意而能得到无意的状态」。将正念的整束光芒,审慎地投射在生活中最小事件与行动上,使人解脱的智能终将生起。

持续的专注不仅是直觉「成长」的良田,还能使其更充分地受到利用,甚至能不断重复直觉的剎那。在各种不同创作领域中得到灵感的人,常对于这共同的经验感到震惊:直觉如电光石火般来去,反应慢半拍的心几乎无法抓住直觉的临去秋波。但若心一直保持警觉的暂停、放缓与持续专注的训练,或若如上述潜意识也受到影响,直觉剎那的节奏就会变得更完整、更慢与更强,而会出现的情况是,其冲击变得既强烈又清楚,将使「直觉的领悟」受到充分利用,甚至可以使其消退中的振动重新达到另一个高峰,有如一首旋律的重复节奏,从首次出现的最后一个音符而和谐地再次生起。

充分利用「直觉的领悟」的剎那,对于通往完全证悟的进程具有关键的重要性。若对心的控制力太弱,未充分用于解脱的工作,就会让难以掌控的「直觉的领悟」溜走,这样的时刻可能许多年后再也不会发生,或终其一生都不再出现。然而,持续专注的技巧可以使人善用这样的机会,而禅修时所做放缓与暂停的练习,则是获得该技巧的重要助力。
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这是向智尊者对“现观”的解释,大家都同意吗?
发表于 2008-2-29 15:20:54 | 显示全部楼层
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